Persian word meaning 'father' or 'grandfather' used among Sikhs as a title of affection and reverence. Also one of Guru Nanak's honorific titles during his lifetime. It assumed a hereditary character and all human Gurus were addressed by this title.
Folk poetry in which emotional yearnings of the human heart are expressed in the changing moods of nature over the 12 months of the year. This style of writing was employed by both Guru Nanak and Guru Arjan Dev Ji each of whom composed a Bara Maha in which the human souls yearning for communion with God is set against the seasonal changes of the year. Both compositions can be found in the Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Nanak’s composition can be found in Raag Tukhari and Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s in Raag Maajh.